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Food
Biofuel
Cement
logistics
Paper And Cellulose
Chemistry and Petrochemicals
Sanitation

FOOD

The food segment is marked by a wide variety of industries and sectors, with the beverage and food industries being their main subdivisions.

The Beverage Industry is very significant in Brazil. In 2008, it achieved net sales of 38.9 billion reais.

The Food Products Industry reached 230 billion reais in net sales in 2008. The ranking of its main sectors (in value) is as follows:

  1. Meat Products
  2. Processing of coffee, tea and cereals
  3. Oil and fat
  4. Dairy Products
  5. Wheat derivatives
  6. Fruit and vegetable derivatives
  7. Sugars
  8. Miscellaneous
  9. Chocolate, cocoa and candy
  10. Canned fish

Another important aspect of the food segment is that micro and small businesses are responsible for more than 90% of all their sales.

Source: Associação Brasileira das Indústrias da Alimentação

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Biofuel

Brazil has an energy matrix with significant participation of renewable energies, having accumulated important experience in the production of alcohol as fuel. The expansion of this participation in the matrix, from the development of biofuels, provides the opportunity to execute social, environmental and economic policies, in addition to aligning with strategic actions at the international level.

In the context of these guidelines, agroenergy covers four main aspects: alcohol, biodiesel, cultivated energy forests and agroforestry residue.

 

It is worth noting that there are interrelationships among these segments, such as the use of ethanol for the production of biodiesel, cogeneration of electricity with residues from alcohol production, or the use of forest biomass residues.

The projection of the potential of agroenergy in Brazil, for the next 30 years, envisages the possibility of producing more than 120 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) annually, which means almost double the current supply, estimated at 57 million toe . However, the achievement of ambitious goals in agroenergy presupposes significant investments in logistics (transport and storage).

Source: Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis

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Cement

Brazil ranks 10th in world cement production, being the largest producer and consumer in Latin America. The ranking is led by China, followed by India and the United States (2007 data).

The cement industry encompasses activities of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials.

From a very homogeneous processing, since there are few variations of types of products, the cement consists of a mixture of limestone with clays extracted from the quarries and other additives. The manufacturing process involves the following steps:

  • Crushing: the clay and the limestone, extracted in the form of blocks, are crushed to have their size reduced to a suitable granulometry;
  • Dosage: according to the desired quality of the final product, the raw materials are dosed, the proportion of limestone and clay being defined according to pre-established chemical parameters;
  • Grinding of raw: the dosed blend is milled. The grinding process consists of the input of the materials dosed into a ball mill or roller, in which grinding occurs with impact and friction. Simultaneously to milling, a process of addition of other materials occurs, so as to obtain the desired amounts of the compounds constituting the raw material;
  • Clinquerization: the compound obtained from the milling is baked at high temperatures in a rotary kiln and then abruptly cooled with cold air against the current, transforming into an intermediary product called clinker, basic material of any cement;
  • Grinding and additions: the clinker stones are subjected to a fine grinding, where appropriate granulometry for the quality of the cement must be ensured, with the addition of a material called gypsum, as well as other constituents, which vary according to the type of cement to be manufactured. Such additives may be calcareous, ash, silica, blast furnace slag, among others. The material resulting from this processing is already cement;
  • Storage, packaging and shipping: the ready-made cement is transported to storage silos, where it is bagged and, finally, shipped to the points of consumption.
Source: Associação Brasileira de Cimento Portland; Industry Companies

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logistics

The Logistics segment covers the transportation and handling of different industrial products.

Among the transports, we highlight:

  • Road transport: Due to the historical prioritization of the Brazilian government in relation to this type of transportation, with the construction of roads and incentives to auto companies, the road model prevailed in relation to others and today corresponds to more than 60% of the whole transportation of cargo carried out in the country;
  • Railroad transportation: trains are particularly directed to the transport of low value and high volume cargo such as ores, steel products, fertilizers, among others. In Brazil, railroads account for approximately 20% of cargo transportation;
  • Waterway transportation: Maritime transport is considerably predominant over inland waterway transport, covering most of the basic raw materials for export. In Brazil, the transport of cargoes by water corresponds to approximately 14% of the total;
  • Pipeline Transportation: Although it accounts for only 4% of freight transportation in Brazil, the transportation of goods through ducts can be considered the safest and most efficient way of transporting cargoes, playing an important role, especially in long-distance transport. The transport of gases, oils and minerals by this type of structure stand out;
  • Air Transportation: Air cargo transport has a high cost and low capacity compared to other types of transport and is commonly reserved for high value-added and low volume goods. In Brazil, airplanes are responsible for the displacement of less than 1% of the total cargo.

Material Handling

 

Source:Industry Companies

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Paper And Cellulose

The paper and cellulose industry is of great importance in the Brazilian economic scenario, and the world scenario is marked by intense competitions by markets and investments.

The sector has a very complex production chain, covering the stages of reforestation, wood production, pulp production, paper production, conversion of paper into artifacts and recycling.

The current technology of cellulose and paper production enables the industries in this sector to present high volumes of production.

 

Source: Industry Companies

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Chemistry and Petrochemicals

With a high degree of scientific and technological development, the chemical industry is responsible for transforming elements present in nature into products useful to man.

The chemical industry is one of the most important and dynamic sectors of the Brazilian economy (the third largest industrial sector in the country), with net sales in 2008 of US $ 122 billion, more than half of which is due to industrial chemicals.

The Brazilian chemical industry occupies the 9th position in the world ranking and Brazil figures as a major importer and exporter of chemical products.

Among the main applications of chemicals are: water treatment, agriculture, animal health, construction, automobiles and information technology.

The segments that make up the activities in the chemical industry can be classified as follows:

 

 

Petrochemical industry

The petrochemical industry is part of the chemical industry and is characterized by the use of an oil derivative (naphtha) and natural gas as basic raw materials. However, many products called petrochemicals, such as polyethylene, can be obtained both from these raw materials and from others, such as coal or alcohol.

It is important to note that petroleum refining and the petrochemical industry represent distinct industrial sectors (petroleum refining is part of the Petroleum Industry, petrochemical is part of the Chemical Industry). In general, it is understood that the petrochemical activity begins with the production of ethylene and its co-products, as well as other naphtha or natural gas derivatives, for industrial purposes.

sorce: Associação Brasileira da Indústria Química; Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão

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Sanitation

Basic sanitation can be considered as a set of measures aimed at preserving or modifying the conditions of the environment in order to prevent disease, promote health, improve the quality of life of the population and facilitate economic activity.

Of note among these measures are the water supply and the disposal of the sewage. The key undertakings are the so-called treatment plants:
 

Source: COPASA; SABESP

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